|Process design, Forming technology
|Nutzung unterschiedlicher Fließspannungen beim Umformen inhomogen erwärmter Rohteile (Inhomogene Erwärmung)
|01.10.2018 – 28.02.2021
Publications about the project
Forming technology Jagodzinski, A.; Rasch, J.; Kriwall, M.; Stonis, M.; Behrens, B.-A.: Inhomogene Rohteilerwärmung – Einfluss der Länge des Temperaturgradienten auf die Materialeinsparung durch inhomogene Rohteilerwärmung bei der Warmmassivumformung. In: stahl + eisen, Maenken Kommunikation GmbH (2022), H. 10, S. 45-48. ISSN: 0340-4803.
In order to make the production of complex geometries as efficient as possible, several forming stages are generally used. In these, the billet is first heated homogeneously and then forged via several preliminary and intermediate stages as well as final forming. Previous investigations have shown that significant material savings can be achieved by using inhomogeneous, rather than homogeneous, billet heating. A limiting factor in the practical implementation of inhomogeneous heating is the temperature gradient between the hot and warm regions of the billet.
This study therefore investigates the influence of the length of the temperature gradient on the blank size required to achieve form filling for a given finished part geometry. For this purpose, a simulative parameter study was carried out with three temperature transitions of different lengths and two different finished part sizes.
It was shown that, depending on the finished part size and the length of the temperature gradient, between 3.31% and 17.49% material can be saved compared to a homogeneously heated billet. The length of the temperature gradient thus has a significant influence on the material savings potential.
bulk forming, inhomogeneous heating, resource efficiency, FEA
Forming technology Jagodzinski, A.; Gerland, H.; Kriwall, M.; Langner, J.; Stonis, M.; Behrens, B.-A.: FE-based Investigation on the Influence of Inhomogeneously Heated Billets on Subsequent Forging Processes. In: Daehn, G.; Cao, J.; Kinsey, B.; Tekkaya, E.; Vivek, A.; Yoshida, Y. (Eds): Forming the Future. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Springer, Cham, 2021, pp. 1107-1119. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-75381-8_93.
Multi-stage forging process chains are often used for the efficient production of complex geometries. Typically, these consist of homogeneous heating, one or more preform stages, and the final forging step. By inhomogeneously heated billets, the process chains can be simplified or shortened. This shall be achieved by setting various temperature fields within a billet, resulting in different yield stresses. These can influence the material flow, leading to easier production of complex parts. In this study, the influence of inhomogeneously heated billets on the forming process is investigated by means of FEA. For this purpose, two process chains including inhomogeneous heating and three homogeneously heated reference process chains are developed and compared. Each process chain is optimized until form filling and no defects occur. Target figures for the assessment are necessary forming force, the amount of material necessary to achieve form filling and die abrasion wear. For process chains with inhomogeneously heated billets, the results showed a small time window of about 5 s for a successful forming in terms of form filling. Forming forces and die abrasion wear increase for inhomogeneously heated billets due to higher initial flow stresses. However, the flash ratio decreases when billets are heated inhomogeneously. Depending on their size, inhomogeneously heated billets show up to 11.8% less flash than homogeneously heated billets. This shows a potential for the use of inhomogeneous heating to make forging processes more efficient. Subsequently, experimental tests will be carried out to verify the results of the simulations.
Inhomogeneous heating, Forging, FEA, Resource efficiency, Preform operation
Multi-stage process chains are often used for the efficient production of complex geometries. These consist of a homogeneous heating, one or more preform stages and the final forging step. Via inhomogeneously heated blanks, the process chains are to be simplified or shortened. This is to be achieved by setting several, clearly defined temperature fields in which different yield stresses are present. These can influence the material flow, leading to an easier production of complex parts.
inhomogeneous heating, bulk forming, preforming processes