Mach, F.; Hund, E.; Stonis, M.: A Control Model for the Dismantling of Industrial Plants. In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 122, International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 11. Jg. (2017) H.2, pp. 167 - 176.
The dismantling of disused industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants or refineries is an enormous challenge for the planning and control of the logistic processes. Existing control models do not meet the requirements for a proper dismantling of industrial plants. Therefore, this paper presents an approach for the control of dismantling and post-processing processes (e.g. decontamination) in plant decommissioning. In contrast to existing approaches, the dismantling sequence and depth are selected depending on the capacity utilization of required post-processing processes by also considering individual characteristics of respective dismantling tasks (e.g. decontamination success rate, uncertainties regarding the process times). The results can be used in the dismantling of industrial plants (e.g. nuclear power plants) to reduce dismantling time and costs by avoiding bottlenecks such as capacity constraints.
dismantling management, logistics planning and control models, nuclear power plant dismantling
Researchers at the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover (IPH) have developed a software programme for an objective evaluation of factory layouts. With this tool, you can select your optimum layout numerically instead of following your gut instincts.
factory planning, layout evaluation, optimization procedures
Uttendorf, S.; Eilert, B.; Overmeyer, L.: A fuzzy logic expert system for the automated generation of roadmaps for automated guided vehicle systems. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), (2016), p.977-981. DOI: 10.1109/IEEM.2016.77980232016.
So far the generation of roadmaps for automated guided vehicles (AGVs) is mostly performed manually. Mathematical path finding algorithms often return results that are mathematically optimal but not applicable to a real production layout. This paper proposes an expert system as a solution that combines traditional path finding algorithms (in the form of a modified version of the A* and the Bellman-Ford algorithm) with a fuzzy inference system that incorporates the human knowledge of AGV system planners. Results that prove the efficiency of the proposed solution are shown in the end.
roadmaps, automated guided vehicles, path planning, fuzzy logic
Whether aircraft, ships or construction machines: The assembly of so-called XXL products requires a lot of space. Researchers at IPH are currently developing a method which enables companies to find an ideal layout. By this means, they can save space and increase their productivity.
XXL products, area arrangement
Data glasses or data gloves as a novel human-machine interface allow intelligent networking within the Smart Factory. Due to lack of implementation strategies small and medium-sized enterprises hesitate to integrate these technologies in production and logistics. In this context, the following article describes a maturity-based approach for a systematic and holistic planning and controlling of the implementation of these interactive assistance systems (IAS).
industry 4.0, maturity model, interactive assistance system, data glasses
A low energy demand and a fast processing time are required in each industrial process for the production of crankshafts. Crankshafts have a very complex geometry and are forged with a high percentage of flash compared to other forging parts. Recent research showed the feasibility of a flashless forging of crankshafts. One way to forge a flashless crankshaft within three steps is to use cross wedge rolling, multi-directional forging and final forging.
This paper presents the investigation results of the influence of the forming angle in cross wedge rolling on different parameters at multi-directional forging. First the state of research, the process development and tool design of cross wedge rolling and multidirectional forging are described. Then the parameter study will be presented and the influence of the forming angle ? on flash generation, billet temperatures, forming degree, forming forces and effective strain are shown. Generally, flash generates because a rotation-symmetric billet is forced into an asymmetric movement. The influence of a rising forming angle leads to a higher amount of flash at the bottom of the crankwebs.
multi-directional forging, cross wedge rolling, crankshaft, parameter study, forming angle
In complaint management, 8D reports are used to document the analysis and elimination of errors. However, the quality of these reports is often insufficient and leads to longer processing times and the repetition of errors. The newly developed evaluation system QuSys enables an automated check of 8D reports.
complaints, quality, evaluation system, errors, 8D reports
Assembling large-scale products involves frequent process interruptions why in order to reduce the impact of interruptions, a short-term response is necessary to reduce delivery delays and idle times of resources. An approach to challenge this represents the flexibility of a production system. Regarding the environment of large-scale product assembly, it has to be shown which potentials of flexibility are able to be used in a short-term manner.
assembly, production management, disruption management
To reduce production costs of forged parts, different approaches are possible. Especially for valuable materials like titanium, material costs represent a large part of the production costs. Therefore, reducing the initial material can decrease the total costs significantly. In order to identify the potential for improvements, an existing forging sequence was investigated.
For a titanium hip implant, a new forging sequence was developed. To reduce the initially needed material, cross wedge rolling as a preforming operation and die forging with flash brakes was investigated. The influence of the different stages on the final result was analysed and presented in detail. To increase the prediction accuracy of the newly developed flash-reduced forging sequence and to decrease iteration loops of die designs, feasible simulation parameters considering the boundary conditions of the forging environment were investigated. This is done using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), considering form filling, process stability, die stress and press forces. Using cross wedge rolling and die forging with flash brakes, the newly developed forging sequence reduces the flash rate significantly from 69 % to 32 %.
cross wedge rolling,forging, flash-reduced, finite element simulations, flash brakes
In this article, image processing of a binary single track code for determining torque is presented. The aim of the research is to determine the absolute angular position of a shaft and the applied torque. For capturing an image of the binary code two independent imaging modules are used, both allowing for measuring the angular position and rotational speed. Combining both imaging modules, torque can be determined. Position markings are directly applied on the shaft using a laser to ensure a simple integration of the system into any application. The selected technological approach is based on a contactless measurement method using angle differences. The concept of image processing as well as first research results are presented for determining the angular position twice and, thus, the torque applied to the shaft.
image processing, single track code, torque
This lecture discusses the results of the research project "4.0 Ready", and goes into detail about the potentials and barriers of the implementation of interactive assistance systems as well as the support of the implementation by the use of maturity models.
industry 4.0, interactive assistance systems, data glasses, maturity models
In multistage hot forging processes, the preform shape is the parameter mainly influencing the final forging result. Nevertheless, the design of multistage hot forging processes is still a trial and error process and, therefore, time consuming. The quality of developed forging sequences strongly depends on the engineer’s experience. To overcome these obstacles this paper presents an algorithm for solving the multi-objective optimization problem in designing preforms. Cross wedge rolled preforms were chosen as subject of investigation. An evolutionary algorithm is introduced to optimize the preform shape taking into account the mass distribution of the final part, the preform volume and the shape complexity. A crucial factor in preform optimization for hot forging processes is the amount of flash. Therefore, an equation for improving the amount of flash is derived. The developed algorithm is tested using two connecting rods with different shape complexities as demonstration parts.
preform optimization, forging, evolutionary algorithms, cross wedge rolling
Regarding the handling of complaints by customers, 8D reports are used for analysis and correction of errors that occur in the production process. However, the quality of these reports is often inadequate and leads to longer processing time and errors. Due to time and capacity restrictions in most cases, 8D reports undergo inadequate internal quality testing. Consequently, the aim of optimizing internal processing fails and poor 8D reports with insufficient solutions are sent to the customer. In this paper, we describe problems with faulty 8D reports in detail, and then present a system that automates quality checking of 8D reports based on these facts. This paper focusses on the basic structure of the developed system and how it improves the quality level of 8D reports within the complaint handling process.
complaint, quality management, 8D method, 8D report
In this article, a combined contactless measurement method is presented which is based on angle differences. The aim is the development of a combined, optical measurement system to determine the angular position of a shaft and the applied torque on it as well as an appropriate production technology to apply markings. Two independent modules are used which separately allow the measurement of angular position and rotational speed and if combined can measure torque. To ensure a simple integration of the system into any application, position markings are directly applied on the shaft using a laser. The selected technological approach is based on a contactless measurement method using angle differences. The concept as well as first research results are presented.
absolute angular position, angle difference, contactless combined measurement, sensor, torque
Online monitoring of production processes, digital factory planning, additive manufacturing – "Mit uns digital!" offers these workshops for free to specialists and executives of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). The digitalization campaign is sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Germany.
production technology, digitalization, industry 4.0
The realization of the Smart Factory represents the core of the industry 4.0. The aim of the Smart Factory is a complete digitization of information and intelligent networking of machines, storage systems and resources. For the efficient integration of humans in the Smart Factory novel human-machine interfaces are necessary, which can be interactive assistance systems such as data glasses, data gloves or headsets.
industry 4.0, interactive assistance systems, data glasses
Evaluation of factory layouts can currently be carried out by experts or by means of simulation models. The review by an expert can be carried out quickly and with little effort, but the assessment is only qualitative and subjective in nature. A quantitative, objective evaluation is possible by simulation models. However, these are more expensive and time-consuming than the expert review. For small and medium enterprises (SMEs) simulation models are often too great a financial or capacitive load. To fill this gap, a research project enables a low-maintenance quantitative and therefore objective evaluation of factory layouts. The basis for this are the appropriate modeling of the factory layout and the calculation rules, which will be presented by two examples..
factory evaluation, factory planning, layout review
This article describes the necessity of considering temporal dynamics in the arrangement of assembly areas for large-scale products. This is justified by the fact that the available area represents a bottleneck and thus using of an intelligent arrangement of the areas can lead to an increased utilization of the factory.
XXL-products, assembly area arrangement
In order to enable small and medium-sized enterprises to use cross-wedge rolling in the future, existing barriers have been eliminated. For this purpose, a method was developed to enable the design of cross wedge tools using software support. For two demonstrator components, hip implant and common rail, cross-wedge rolling processes were designed. With the cross-wedge rolled preforms, flash-reduced forging sequences could be designed for both demonstrator components. In order to be able to roll the parts industrially at low cost, a cross wedge rolliing machine was designed, manufactured and built at the forging company. The complete process chain of the hip implant was successfully tested.
cross wedge rolling, forming machine, ressource efficiency, hip implant, common rail
The proportion of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power increases. As a result, the energy has to be consumed when it is available. With dynamic electricity tariffs or trades on the power exchange customers are moved to reduce energy consumption when prices are high.
manufacturing control, energy costs, electricity prices