Publications

Tailored forming is used to produce hybrid components in which the materials used are locally adapted to the diferent types of physical, chemical and tribological requirements. In this paper, a Tailored Forming process chain for the production of a hybrid shaft with a bearing seat is investigated. The process chain consists of the manufacturing steps laser hot-wire cladding, cross-wedge rolling, turning and deep rolling. A cylindrical bar made of mild steel C22.8 is used as the base material, and a cladding of the martensitic valve steel X45CrSi9-3 is applied in the area of the bearing seat to achieve the strength and hardness required. It is investigated how the surface and subsurface properties of the hybrid component, such as hardness, microstructure and residual stress state, change within the process chain. The results are compared with a previous study in which the austenitic stainless steel X2CrNiMo19-12 was investigated as a cladding material. It is shown that the residual stress state after hot forming depends on the thermal expansion coefcients of the cladding material.

Tailored forming, Residual stress, Laser hot-wire cladding, Deep rolling, Hybrid Components

The reorganization of factory objects in the restructuring of existing factories is associated with numerous challenges. This article provides an overview of possible conflicting goals and key factors influencing the success of the project.

Factories are subject to continuous change. Ever shorter development cycles in the manufacture of different products lead to an increased need for restructuring of affected manufacturing structures. In the context of factory planning projects, the focus is on the design of the layout under the influence of individual framework conditions. The relocation steps necessary for realization are usually determined only after the layout design has been completed. However, the planning and preparation of the relocation represents an independent project task with regard to the objectives and complexity. Within the scope of the research project on the "Development of a Method for the Optimal Planning of the Relocation of Factory Objects in the Course of the Realization of a New Factory Layout" (OptiFaU), fundamental interrelationships in the planning and execution of factory relocations are investigated and discussed with regard to their significance for the success of the project. The aim of the project is to provide planning persons (e.g. relocation service providers or factory planners) with a possibility to evaluate relocation alternatives.

relocation planning, project planning, scheduling, factory planning, reorganization

IPH has developed an algorithm for the automated design of rolling dies in the DFG project "Non-Circular Rolling". The researchers are using it to perform extensive parameter studies with a wide range of dies.

Non-circular rolling, cross wedge rolling, rolling dies, design, automation, algorithm

For more than half of the approximately 30,000 wind turbines in Germany, the 20-year EEG funding will end in the next ten years. It is still unclear what the optimal technical and economic strategies for end-oflife utilization might look like. The BMWK joint project „TransWind“ aims to analyze the end-of-life issue on a micro- and macro-level in a transdisciplinary manner to support stakeholders from politics, the wind industry, and the resource and recycling sector in the selection of end-of-life strategies.

wind turbines, end-of-life, ecology, dismantling, repowering, disassembly, recycling, XXL products

The Tailored Forming process chain is used to manufacture hybrid components and consists of a joining process or Additive
Manufacturing for various materials (e.g. deposition welding), subsequent hot forming, machining and heat treatment. In
this way, components can be produced with materials adapted to the load case. For this paper, hybrid shafts are produced by
deposition welding of a cladding made of X45CrSi9-3 onto a workpiece made from 20MnCr5. The hybrid shafts are then
formed by means of cross-wedge rolling. It is investigated, how the thickness of the cladding and the type of cooling after
hot forming (in air or in water) afect the properties of the cladding. The hybrid shafts are formed without layer separation.
However, slight core loosening occurres in the area of the bearing seat due to the Mannesmann efect. The microhardness
of the cladding is only slightly efected by the cooling strategy, while the microhardness of the base material is signifcantly
higher in water cooled shafts. The microstructure of the cladding after both cooling strategies consists mainly of martensite.
In the base material, air cooling results in a mainly ferritic microstructure with grains of ferrite-pearlite. Quenching in water
results in a microstructure containing mainly martensite.

laser hot-wire cladding, cross-wedge rolling, hybrid components, cladding

Additive manufacturing makes it possible not only to attach RFID tags to identify components from the outside, but also to implement them directly in the component. Which processes are suitable – and to what extent can this process be automated?

Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, FDM, fused deposition modeling, identification, RFID

Product complexity and variant diversity increase the effort for the development of production processes at SMEs. As part of the IGF research project "Self-learning multi-stage quality monitoring processes for (laser) material processing" (AiF No.: 20419N), an expert system was therefore developed for manufacturing companies in the field of laser material processing. The expert system supports users in process control and quality prediction of new products and product variants .

laser material processing, expert system, machine learning

This article presents a method for superimposing vision constraints based on the principle of augmented reality. The method is based on an overlay of the actual operator's field of view with information from a reconstructed scene. The reconstructed scene is superimposed as a hologram only over the vision-restricting components. The presented method is divided into position determination, data transmission and visualization. These software components are presented in detail. In view of the later use of the system in an industrial truck, the real-time capability of the data transmission, the accuracy of the visualization and the robustness of the position determination are also investigated.

augmented reality, driver assistance system, forklift trucks, image processing, obstacle detection

In the automotive and mechanical engineering industries, forged parts are used in many applications. The dies for the forged parts are subject to high wear during forging due to high forming forces and temperatures. In order to enable economical production operation, methods to reduce the wear in warm forging have been investigated. One promising method is the use of Diamondlike-Carbon (DLC) wear-resistant coatings.

Warm Forging, Coating, DLC, Wear

Storage planning is an important element of the factory planning and a significant competitive factor in times of an increasing global market. The selection of a suitable storage, commissioning and transport system (sct system) is a major challenge for companies, because of the increasing number of new sct systems with different features. The level of automation and versatility of these systems are intransparent and the required level of both for a certain company is unknown. To identify the level of versatility of sct systems a method based on versatility characteristics assigned to the versatility enablers was developed. To determine the required versatility of sct systems for a particular company, a catalogue of change drivers was created. For the level of automation of sct systems, the requirements resulting from product characteristics and performance requirements of the warehouse were identified. The performance of the sct systems depends on the automation level, which can be set by influencing factors such as the degree of digitalization. The required level of automation must be determined by restrictions of the company and the identified possibilities of the systems. At the same time, it is required to consider the costs of the systems as well as their possible combinations. Therefore, to save costs, the aim is also to consider systems which do not fit perfectly to the required versatility and automation level for a company but are still at an acceptable level.

storage, commissioning and transport systems, automation and versatility

Additive manufacturing has established itself in medical technology, where complex and patient-specific products are manufactured. Since additive manufacturing processes are sensitive to changes in process parameters and environmental conditions, quality assurance is a key factor for production. This paper presents the approach for in-situ process monitoring in additive material extrusion.

Additive Manufacturing, 3D printing, Fused Deposition Modeling, quality control, machine learning

Due to the increased integration of functions, many components have to meet high and sometimes contradictory requirements. One way to solve this problem is Tailored Forming. Here, hybrid semi-finished products are manufactured by a joining or cladding process, which are then hot-formed and finished. For the design of hybrid components for a possible later industrial application, knowledge about properties of hybrid components is required. In this paper it is investigated how the respective process steps of the Tailored Forming process chain change the surface and subsurface properties of the applied cladding layer. For this purpose, shafts made of unalloyed steel are provided with a high-alloy austenitic steel X2CrNiMo19-12 cladding by laser hot-wire cladding. Subsequently, hot forming is carried out by cross-wedge rolling and the finishing by turning and deep rolling. After each process step, the subsurface properties of the cladding such as microstructure, hardness and residual stress state are examined. Thus, the influence of different process steps on the subsurface properties in the process chain of manufacturing hybrid shafts can be analyzed. This knowledge is necessary for the specific adjustment of defined properties for a required application behavior.

Cross-Wedge Rolling, Tailored Forming, Hybrid

What factors influence the running behavior of idlers? How do they behave in heat and cold; how resistant are they to water and dust? All this can be investigated with the new test rigs at IPH. Even motor-driven idlers are tested there.

idlers, rollers, test rig, belt conveyor system, bulk material handling, energy efficiency

During the assembly of large-scale products, disruptions often occur. To reduce these disruptions, a straightforward approach to their systematic processing is needed. This should automatically identify similar disruptions and independently suggest sensible corrective measures. For this, the disruptions are first collected and characterized and a model for practical information flows is created. Then, in a multi-stage similarity search, similar disruptions are identified, and suitable corrective measures are derived.

Disruption management, single and small batch assembly, large scale products, similarity search

In this paper, a new solution for the facility layout problem is presented. The approach was integrated into a planning software. The aim of the MeFaP research project was mainly the development of a user-friendly decision support regarding the facility layout problem for small and medium-sized companies. Therefore, a realistic modelling of the planning problem was focused on. Thus, a path planning with area allocation was integrated, for example. The metaheuristic Tabu Search was selected as a solution approach. To ensure an efficient optimisation, the optimisation is performed in two steps, once without and then with route planning. The experiments were performed with the objectives material flow distance, temperature and cleanliness, which are briefly described. The results of the experiments were compared with current solution approaches.

facility layout problem, factory planning, multi-criteria, metaheuristic, tabu search, software

Reducing the planning and development time for efficient staging sequences in closed die forging offers companies in the forging industry a high potential for responding to competitive to respond to competitive challenges and remain competitive.The digitization of development processes opens up innovative support options for companies.

forging sequence desing, forming technology, digitization, process development, CAD

In order to enable even complex processes such as the joining of additively manufactured components by laser in production in a quality-assured way, the existence of specialist knowledge in companies is absolutely essential. To bundle this knowledge for process control and monitoring independently of personnel, an expert system is being developed in the IGF research project of FQS - Forschungsgemeinschaft Qualität e.V. entitled "Quality assurance in laser beam welding of additively manufactured thermoplastic components (QualLa)". By integrating specialist knowledge into the expert system, this knowledge can be secured in companies in the long term and processes can continuously be carried out with high qualitative standards.

additive manufacturing, 3D printing, FDM, laser transmission welding, laser beam welding

In the forging industry, which is dominated by SMEs, the tool life of forging dies is usually determined on the basis of empirical values and subjective decisions. In order to avoid considerable logistical and economic expenses as a result of unplanned downtimes and die failure, the tool life is often set many times lower and a waste of existing residual tool life is caused. One possibility to determine the remaining tool life of forging tools is a combined measuring method, which is to be developed at the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover (IPH) gGmbH.

Forming technology, tool life, process monitoring

Planning a factory is a major challenge, especially for small and medium-sized manufacturing companies that have little experience. We explain how factory planning projects work and which digital tools simplify and accelerate planning.

factory planning, analysis, structural planning, dimensioning, warehouse planning, layout evaluation

IPH has made it its business to integrate the core idea of sustainability into its mission statement – in research, but also in its daily work. 

In numerous research projects, the scientists are working on recycling plastics, reducing the energy requirements of vehicles, developing lightweight construction concepts, reducing waste in components produced by forming technology and intelligently integrating renewable energies into production – and for example they are also shedding light on questions relating to the environmentally compatible dismantling, repowering and new construction of wind turbines.

In addition, IPH and an interdisciplinary team of employees are committed to making the entire company more sustainable as part of the "ÖKOPROFIT" program.

sustainability, resources, environmental protection, economic efficiency

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