- The IPH
The Collaborative Research Centre 1153 (CRC 1153) “Process chain for the production of hybrid high-performance components through tailored forming” aims to develop new process chains for the production of hybrid bulk components using joined semi-finished workpieces. The subproject B1 investigates the formability of hybrid parts using cross-wedge rolling. This study investigates the reduction of the coating thickness of coaxially arranged semi-finished hybrid parts through cross-wedge rolling. The investigated parts are made of two steels (1.0460 and 1.4718) via laser cladding with hot-wire. The rolling process is designed by finite element (FE)-simulations and later experimentally investigated. Research priorities include investigations of the difference in the coating thickness of the laser cladded 1.4718 before and after cross-wedge rolling depending on the wedge angle, cross-section reduction, and the forming speed. Also, the simulations and the experimental trials are compared to verify the possibility of predicting the thickness via finite element analysis (FEA). The main finding was the ability to describe the forming behavior of coaxially arranged hybrid parts at a cross-section reduction of 20% using FEA. For a cross-section reduction of 70% the results showed a larger deviation between simulation and experimental trials. The deviations were between 0.8% and 26.2%.
cross-wedge rolling, hybrid forming, FEA, coating thickness
Within the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC) 1153 “Tailored Forming “the manufacturing of hybrid bulk components is investigated. Therefore, a process chain consisting of joining, forming, milling and quality control has been established by multiple subprojects.Within subproject B1 of the CRC forming of hybrid parts by the incrementally forming cross-wedge rolling (CWR) process is investigated. The superior aim is to determine process limits and capabilities, when forming parts consisting of different materials joined by varying technologies.
In this paper, the investigation of cross-wedge rolling of serially arranged hybrid parts made of steel and aluminum is described. The focus of the research presented in this publication is the displacement of the joining zone of hybrid parts due to the cross-wedge rolling process. Therefore, finite element simulations have been developed, that allow the investigations of hybrid solid components. After simulation of various variations of the cross-wedge rolling process, i.e. differently shaped tools and forming velocities, experimental trials were carried out with identical parameter sets. A comparison of simulation and experiment, showed that the simulation model is capable of describing the cross-wedge rolling process of hybrid parts. The standard deviation of the displacement of the joining zone between simulation and experimental trials is 8.8% with regard to all investigated cases.
tailored forming, cross-wedge rolling, material forming, aluminum, steel
Within the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC) 1153 Tailored Forming a process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high performance components is developed. Exemplary process steps consist of deposit welding of high-performance steel onto low cost steel and pre-shaping the component by cross-wedge rolling (CWR), supported by an optical quality control system. A combination of a fringe projection profilometry setup with a thermal imaging camera is used to monitor the components before and after the CWR process. Both geometry and thermal imaging data are combined, assigning temperature values to 3D data points.
In this paper, the acquisition of combined temperature-geometry data is described. The data before and after the CWR is compared to the input and the result data of the forming simulation that was used to design the CWR process. The comparison shows the quality and sustainability of the heating process as well as the influence of the transportation of the hot component prior to forming. Additionally, the accuracy of the used simulation model and software are evaluated by data examination. The examination shows the limits of idealised and simplified assumptions for the simulation, e.g., a homogeneous temperature distribution before forming or the modelling of the heat transfer on contact surfaces.
tailored forming, cross-wedge rolling, material forming, aluminum, steel, optical measurement
Within the Collaborative Research Centre 1153 “Tailored Forming“ a process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high performance components is developed. Exemplary process steps consist of deposit welding of high performance steel on low-cost steel, pre-shaping by cross-wedge rolling and finishing by milling.
Hard material coatings such as Stellite 6 or Delcrome 253 are used as wear or corrosion protection coatings in industrial applications. Scientists of the Institute of Material Science welded these hard material alloys onto a base material, in this case C22.8, to create a hybrid workpiece. Scientists of the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover have shown that these hybrid workpieces can be formed without defects (e.g. detachment of the coating) by cross-wedge rolling. After forming, the properties of the coatings are retained or in some cases even improved (e.g. the transition zone between base material and coating). By adjustments in the welding process, it was possible to apply the 100Cr6 rolling bearing steel, as of now declared as non-weldable, on the low-cost steel C22.8. 100Cr6 was formed afterwards in its hybrid bonding state with C22.8 by cross-wedge rolling, thus a component-integrated bearing seat was produced. Even after welding and forming, the rolling bearing steel coating could still be quench-hardened to a hardness of over 60 HRC. This paper shows the potential of forming hybrid billets to tailored parts. Since industrially available standard materials can be used for hard material coatings by this approach, even though they are not weldable by conventional methods, it is not necessary to use expensive, for welding designed materials to implement a hybrid component concept.
tailored forming, cross-wedge rolling, hard material coatings, PTA
Bulk-formed components are used in many applications in automotive and plant engineering. The conditions under which the components are manufactured, often at more than 800°C and thousands of tons of forming force, lead to high die wear. One way to reduce wear is to use suitable protective coatings. Initial basic investigations showed that the use of hard Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) wear-resistant coatings can significantly reduce the tribological effects on the die surface. With new methods such as the use of multilayer layer coatings and temperature measurement on the die surface by use of thin layer sensors, the potential of wear protection for semi-hot massive forming is to be investigated and expanded.
DLC, hot forging, wear