Quality assurance methods are a central success factor for the further industrialization of additive manufacturing. This paper presents an approach for an optical inspection system that controls the quality of additive material extrusion layer by layer. The inspection task gets analyzed, hardware components for data acquisition are designed and a first step towards texture-analytical detection of defects is presented.
additive manufacturing, 3d printing, material extrusion, fused deposition modeling, image processing
How ergonomic is my workplace? Scientists from Hanover have developed evaluation software that can answer this question quickly and objectively. The digital ergonomics evaluator is particularly helpful for small and medium-sized companies: In the future, they will be able to carry out ergonomics assessments without much effort to protect their assembly workers from back and knee pain, tendonitis or similar problems.
ergonomical assessment, industry 4.0, 3D camera
Thanks to digital assistants, even low-skilled workers can perform complex tasks - the example of SCHUBS GmbH shows this. The company manufactures customized control cabinets and is an important employer for people with disabilities. Schubs would like to introduce a digital assistance system so that they can take on more responsible tasks in the future. The Mittelstand 4.0 Competence Center Hanover developed the demonstrator for this.
assistance systems, digitization
The digitization of processes and the networking of systems is a major challenge for many small businesses. In addition to traditional production companies, the transition to Industry 4.0 is increasingly affecting branches that have not been adequately considered as users for smart technologies and IoT. Modern horse stables manage complex feed schedules, track movement data, analyze temperatures and other parameters or monitor electric fences. So far, there is no instrument to control all of these demanding and complex processes efficiently and easily. Ludwig und Partner Reitanlagen and the Mittelstand 4.0 competence center in Hanover worked together to develop a concept for the low-threshold networking of such facilities. This is intended to make digitization opportunities more accessible and to ensure economic operation.
digitization, Internet of Things, IoT, networking, retrofit
Whether transporting salt, sugar or any other bulk material, belt conveyors are ideal for achieving a continuous mass flow. Important components of belt conveyors are idlers. These support the belt and the bulk material on it. The Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover (IPH) has developed a test rig for the examination of idlers.
idlers, rollers, bulk material handling
Forming technology, Artificial Intelligence Kampen, D.; Blohm, T.; Richter, J.; Knust, J.; Langner, J.; Stonis, M.; Behrens, B.-A.: Design of a genetic algorithm to preform optimization for hot forging processes. In: International Journal of Material Forming, vol. 13 (2020), no. 1, pp. 77-89. ISSN 1960-6214. DOI: 10.1007/s12289-019-01469-4.
To this day, the design of preforms for hot forging processes is still a manual trial and error process and therefore time consuming. Furthermore, its quality vastly depends on the engineer’s experience. At the same time, the preform is the most influencing stage for the final forging result. To overcome the dependency on the engineer’s experience and time-consuming optimization processes this paper presents and evaluates a preform optimization by an algorithm for cross wedge rolled preforms. This algorithm takes the mass distribution of the final part, the preform volume, the shape complexity, the appearance of folds in the final part and the occurring amount of flash into account. This forms a multi-criteria optimization problem resulting in large search spaces. Therefore, an evolutionary algorithm is introduced. The developed algorithm is tested with the help of a connecting rod to estimate the influence of the algorithm parameters. It is found that the developed algorithm is capable of creating a suitable preform for the given criteria in less than a minute. Furthermore, two of the five given algorithm parameters, the selection pressure und the population size, have significant influence on the optimization duration and quality.
preform optimization, genetic algorithm, cross wedge rolled, adaptive flash
A product-dependent, individual process development represents a main cost driver in laser material processing. Therefore, the expert system SmQL is being developed in an FQS-funded project, in which process knowledge can be stored in a formalized form and represented in rule form. This is intended to minimize times for setup processes and secure knowledge in the company in the long term.
expert system, industry 4.0, laser materials processing
Quality assurance methods are a central success factor for the further industrialization of additive manufacturing. In the IGF research project "Optical quality inspection for extrusion 3D printing (Quali3D)", a testing system is therefore being developed which monitors the quality of the additive process layer by layer. This should enable a comprehensive evaluation.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, optical metrology, image processing
The processing of ceramics is an important technology for various technical applications. In this paper, a highly
controllable process consisting of spray-coating and laser structuring to design ceramic layers on a versatile
applicable substrate is presented. A thermoelectric oxide, Ca3Co4O9, which is a type of thermoelectric material,
is used in the process and applied to a flexible ceramic substrate. The resulting structures have highly controllable
shapes and good thermoelectric properties, and they can be used to produce a printable thermoelectric
generator (TEG). The use of a flexible ceramic substrate and the high feasibility of the process lead to a universally
applicable procedure that can be used to process ceramics with unique structures and designs.
thermoelectric, printed electronic, laser structuring, printed ceramics, spray coating
This paper presents a method for the automated classification of forged parts for classification into the Spies order of shapes by artificial neural networks. The aim is to develop a recognition program within the framework of automated forging sequence planning, which can directly identify a shape class from the CAD file of the forged part and characteristics of the forged part relevant for the design of the process.
The structured and future-orientated planning of factory layouts is an important factor in maintaining the competitive ability. However, conventional planning methods with 2D Layouts reach their limits because they can no longer map the increasingly complex factory structures in detail. Alternatives are offered by 360° environmental scanning methods, which currently only serve as a template for postmodeling. This article presents a method for planning directly in the factory image. The aim is to make the factory planning process more effective and less error-prone.
3D-factory layout, factory planning, production planning, point cloud, point cloud processing
XXL products, Industry 4.0 Kruse, T.; Poschke, A.; Esch, J.; Kettner, D.; Peitsch, P.: CoMoGear – Condition monitoring of marine gearboxes based on wireless, energy-autonomous sensor nodes. In: Statustagung Maritime Technologien – Tagungsband der Statustagung 2019, Schriftenreihe Projektträger Jülich, o. Jg. (2019), S. 109-120.
Within the CoMoGear project, an energy self-sufficient wireless sensor network for the condition monitoring of highly stressed rotating components in marine gearboxes was developed. This sensor network consists of several sensor nodes and energy harvesters.
sensor nodes, condition monitoring, marine gearbox, energy harvesting
Industry 4.0 Overmeyer L.; Dohrmann, L.; Kleinert, S.; Podszus, F.; Seel, A.; Eilert, B.; Küster, B. (2019): Intelligente Flurförderzeuge durch die Implementierung kognitiver Systeme. In: ten Hompel, M.; Vogel-Heuser, B.; Bauernhansl, T. (Hrsg.): Handbuch Industrie 4.0, Springer Vieweg, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-45537-1_9-2.
This article shows how the abilities known to humans to be flexible and adapt to changing environmental conditions, which are reflected in human cognitive characteristics, can be transferred to industrial trucks in intralogistics. As examples for the implementation of Industry 4.0 in intralogistics, technologies are presented that enable industrial trucks to recognize their environment, communicate information, draw conclusions, act autonomously, make decisions, learn or plan. These capabilities will be realized by an optical positioning system for position determination, camera-based storage/retrieval support and sensor technology integrated into tires, as well as novel forms of interaction for industrial trucks in the form of speech and gestures.
automated guided vehicle, augmented reality, smart glasses
The Hybrid Forging Process satisfies the needs of modern structural and material lightweight engineering by combining forming and mechanical joining operations within one process. This paper presents an analytical approach for the prediction of symmetrical joining bonds of bulk material and sheet metal. Finite element simulations verify that the analytical approach provides a threshold value for the sheet metal thickness at which the bending elongation is reduced significantly. Furthermore, the analytical approach emphasizes that surpassing the threshold value leads to a saturation of the bending elongation reduction and only marginal benefit is achieved by increasing the sheet metal thickness.
hybrid forging, bonding, joining, elastomechanics, lightweight, multi-material manufacturing
Automated guided vehicles, Automation Fritzsch, B.; Stonis, M.: Drohnen zum Materialtransport – Voraussetzungen und Wirtschaftlichkeit. In: ZWF – Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Carl Hanser Verlag, 114. Jg. (2019), H. 9, S. 584-587. ISSN 0032-678X. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3139/104.112134.
Material transports in production facilities are subject to constant change. Production batch sizes are becoming smaller and a trend towards batch size 1 is becoming apparent. For this reason, a new research project is examining drones respectively unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as so far rarely used transport technology for possible applications in intralogistics. Barriers to use UAV and risks during its use are categorized and evaluated. In the following, requirements for the operating environment and the technical equipment itself are derived from this. Overall, it is investigated to what extent UAV can be integrated into the operational infrastructure of companies in certain use cases and whether the resulting change in logistics performance justifies its use cost-effectively.
drones, material transport, requirements, economic efficiency
Combining standard time series models with search query data can be helpful in predicting sales. We include the search volume of company as well as product-related keywords provided by Google Trends as new predictors in models to forecast sales on a product level. Using weekly data from January 2015 to December 2016 of two products of the audio company Sennheiser we find evidence that using Google Trends data can enhance the prediction performance of conventional models.
Google econometrics, forecasting, search query data
Components manufactured by hybrid forging in progressive dies have a high potential for lightweight construction. The example of a suspension arm shows the advantage of hybrid forged parts creating new possibilities for structural and material lightweight construction. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the heat subjected to hybrid forged parts during the subsequent hardening process does not threaten the potential of material lightweight construction.
progressive compound, hybrid, forging
Automated guided vehicles, Artificial Intelligence, Industry 4.0 Seel, A.; Kreutzjans, F.; Küster, B.; Stonis, M.; Overmeyer, L.: Interaktion per Sprachbefehl – Eine Form manueller intuitiver Beauftragung von Fahrerlosen Transportfahrzeugen. In: Hebezeuge Fördermittel, HUSS-MEDIEN GmbH, 59. Jg. (2019), H. 10, S. 24-27.
Driverless transport systems are a building block for more efficient production systems in intralogistics, but have weaknesses in human-machine interaction. In a complex research project, a voice-based assignment is being developed, among other things, which is intended to make human-machine interaction more intuitive and increase its acceptance.
automated guided vehicle, augmented reality, smart glasses, voice control
Industry 4.0 Kriwall, A.; Alshov, A.; Küster, B.; Stonis, M.; Overmeyer, L.: Entwicklung eines Prüfstands zur Untersuchung des Laufverhaltens von konventionellen und angetriebenen Tragrollen unter einsatznahen Bedingungen. In: 24. Fachtagung Schüttgutfördertechnik 2019 "Digitalisierung in der Schüttgutfördertechnik". Logisch GmbH, Magdeburg, 2019, S. 131-142, ISBN 978-3-947068-06-7.
Belt conveyor systems are an excellent way of conveying bulk material. With increasing load and transport distance, these systems become larger and energy efficiency becomes an important factor. Rollers are an integral part of belt conveyor systems. The running behaviour of idlers during operation has an impact on the energy efficiency of the entire system. The development of driven idlers is seen as one way to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyor systems. This contribution shows that the investigation of conventional and driven idlers under different conditions is necessary and that a test rig for the investigation of these idlers has been developed at the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover.
idlers, rollers, driven idler, bulk material handling
Forming technology Jagodzinski, A.; Kruse, J.; Barroi, A.; Mildebrath, M.; Langner, J.; Stonis, M.; Lammers, M.; Hermsdorf, J.; Hassel, T.; Behrens, B.-A.; Overmeyer, L.: Investigation of the Prediction Accuracy of a Finite Element Analysis Model for the Coating Thickness in Cross-Wedge Rolled Coaxial Hybrid Parts. In: Materials (2019). ISSN 1996-1944. DOI: 10.3390/ma12182969.
The Collaborative Research Centre 1153 (CRC 1153) “Process chain for the production of hybrid high-performance components through tailored forming” aims to develop new process chains for the production of hybrid bulk components using joined semi-finished workpieces. The subproject B1 investigates the formability of hybrid parts using cross-wedge rolling. This study investigates the reduction of the coating thickness of coaxially arranged semi-finished hybrid parts through cross-wedge rolling. The investigated parts are made of two steels (1.0460 and 1.4718) via laser cladding with hot-wire. The rolling process is designed by finite element (FE)-simulations and later experimentally investigated. Research priorities include investigations of the difference in the coating thickness of the laser cladded 1.4718 before and after cross-wedge rolling depending on the wedge angle, cross-section reduction, and the forming speed. Also, the simulations and the experimental trials are compared to verify the possibility of predicting the thickness via finite element analysis (FEA). The main finding was the ability to describe the forming behavior of coaxially arranged hybrid parts at a cross-section reduction of 20% using FEA. For a cross-section reduction of 70% the results showed a larger deviation between simulation and experimental trials. The deviations were between 0.8% and 26.2%.
cross-wedge rolling, hybrid forming, FEA, coating thickness