Incremental forming of hybrid parts using cross-wedge rolling

Project title Incremental forming of hybrid parts using cross-wedge rolling (SFB 1153 – Teilprojekt B1 – Querkeilwalzen)
Project duration 01.07.2015 – 30.06.2023
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Project website www.sfb1153.uni-hannover.de
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The overall objective of the collaborative research centre "Tailored Forming" is to open up the potential for hybrid solid components based on a new tailored manufacturing process using semi-finished products assembled. Unlike existing manufacturing and production processes of hybrid solid components in which the joining process takes place only during the forming operation or at the end of the production chain, tailor-made semi-finished products are used in the collaborate research centre, which are added before the forming process. Compared to the existing production process the simple geometry of the semi-finished products facilitates the handling and the reliable production of a material joining zone. In the subproject B1 the incremental forming of hybrid semi-finished products by cross wedge rolling is investigated.

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  • 07.11.2016
  • PZH – Produktionstechnisches Zentrum Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen
  • 27.06.2016
  • PZH – Produktionstechnisches Zentrum Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen
  • 25.04.2016
  • PZH – Produktionstechnisches Zentrum Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen
  • 01.02.2016
  • PZH – Produktionstechnisches Zentrum Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen
  • 26.11.2015
  • PZH – Produktionstechnisches Zentrum Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen
  • 23.07.2015
  • PZH – Produktionstechnisches Zentrum Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen

Publications about the project

Within the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC) 1153 “Tailored Forming “the manufacturing of hybrid bulk components is investigated. Therefore, a process chain consisting of joining, forming, milling and quality control has been established by multiple subprojects.Within subproject B1 of the CRC forming of hybrid parts by the incrementally forming cross-wedge rolling (CWR) process is investigated. The superior aim is to determine process limits and capabilities, when forming parts consisting of different materials joined by varying technologies.

In this paper, the investigation of cross-wedge rolling of serially arranged hybrid parts made of steel and aluminum is described. The focus of the research presented in this publication is the displacement of the joining zone of hybrid parts due to the cross-wedge rolling process. Therefore, finite element simulations have been developed, that allow the investigations of hybrid solid components. After simulation of various variations of the cross-wedge rolling process, i.e.  differently shaped tools and forming velocities, experimental trials were carried out with identical parameter sets. A comparison of simulation and experiment, showed that the simulation model is capable of describing the cross-wedge rolling process of hybrid parts. The standard deviation of the displacement of the joining zone between simulation and experimental trials is 8.8% with regard to all investigated cases.

tailored forming, cross-wedge rolling, material forming, aluminum, steel

Within the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC) 1153 Tailored Forming a process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high performance components is developed. Exemplary process steps consist of deposit welding of high-performance steel onto low cost steel and pre-shaping the component by cross-wedge rolling (CWR), supported by an optical quality control system. A combination of a fringe projection profilometry setup with a thermal imaging camera is used to monitor the components before and after the CWR process. Both geometry and thermal imaging data are combined, assigning temperature values to 3D data points.
In this paper, the acquisition of combined temperature-geometry data is described. The data before and after the CWR is compared to the input and the result data of the forming simulation that was used to design the CWR process. The comparison shows the quality and sustainability of the heating process as well as the influence of the transportation of the hot component prior to forming. Additionally, the accuracy of the used simulation model and software are evaluated by data examination. The examination shows the limits of idealised and simplified assumptions for the simulation, e.g., a homogeneous temperature distribution before forming or the modelling of the heat transfer on contact surfaces.

tailored forming, cross-wedge rolling, material forming, aluminum, steel, optical measurement

Within the Collaborative Research Centre 1153 “Tailored Forming“ a process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high performance components is developed. Exemplary process steps consist of deposit welding of high performance steel on low-cost steel, pre-shaping by cross-wedge rolling and finishing by milling.
Hard material coatings such as Stellite 6 or Delcrome 253 are used as wear or corrosion protection coatings in industrial applications. Scientists of the Institute of Material Science welded these hard material alloys onto a base material, in this case C22.8, to create a hybrid workpiece. Scientists of the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover have shown that these hybrid workpieces can be formed without defects (e.g. detachment of the coating) by cross-wedge rolling. After forming, the properties of the coatings are retained or in some cases even improved (e.g. the transition zone between base material and coating). By adjustments in the welding process, it was possible to apply the 100Cr6 rolling bearing steel, as of now declared as non-weldable, on the low-cost steel C22.8. 100Cr6 was formed afterwards in its hybrid bonding state with C22.8 by cross-wedge rolling, thus a component-integrated bearing seat was produced. Even after welding and forming, the rolling bearing steel coating could still be quench-hardened to a hardness of over 60 HRC. This paper shows the potential of forming hybrid billets to tailored parts. Since industrially available standard materials can be used for hard material coatings by this approach, even though they are not weldable by conventional methods, it is not necessary to use expensive, for welding designed materials to implement a hybrid component concept.

tailored forming, cross-wedge rolling, hard material coatings, PTA

This paper describes the production process of serially arranged hybrid steel parts, produced by combining a laser welding process with a subsequent cross wedge rolling process. The presented results are only a first approach in order to get first insights in the forming behaviour of laser welded and cross wedge rolled parts. The investigated material combination is C22 (1.0402) and 20MnCr5 (1.7147). This innovative process chain enables the production of hybrid parts. To evaluate the developed process chain, the weld and the joining zone is analysed before and after cross wedge rolling. Main results are that the joining process using laser welding enables a strong bonding between the two materials with a higher hardness in the joining zone than for the individual materials. After the forming process, the bonding of the joining zone is still present, while the hardness decreased but remains higher than of the materials themselves.

tailored forming, laser welding, hybrid parts, cross wedge rolling

In this paper, investigations about the displacement of the joining-zone of serially arranged semi-finished hybrid parts durig cross-wedge rolling are presented. The investigated material combinations are steel-steel (C22 and 41Cr4) and steel-aluminum (20MnCr5 and AlSi1MgMn). The rolling process is designed using FEM-simulations and the cross-wedge rolling process was experimentally investigated afterwards. Research priorities are investigations of the displacement of the joining-zone depending on the main parameters of cross wedge rolling. It could be shown that the forming behaviour of serially arranged hybrid parts made of steel-steel and steel-aluminum can be described using FEM. The deviation of the simulated displacement of the joining-zone compared to the trials is only about 3 %, which is a good approximation.

cross-wedge rolling, steel, aluminum, joining-zone

Most of today’s technical parts and components are made of monolithic materials. These mono-material components produced in established production processes reach their limits due to their respective material characteristics. Thus, a significant increase in production quality and efficiency can only be achieved by combining different materials in one part. Bulk forming of previously joined semi-finished products to net shape hybrid components that consist of two different materials is a promising method to produce parts with locally optimized characteristics. This new production process chain offers a number of advantages compared to conventional manufacturing technologies. Examples are the production of specific load-adapted forged parts with a high level of material utilization, an improvement of the joining zone caused by the following forming process and an easy to implement joining process due to the simple geometries of the semi-finished products.

This paper describes the production process of hybrid steel parts, produced by combining a plasma-transferred arc deposition welding process with a subsequent cross wedge rolling process. This innovative process chain enables the production of hybrid parts. To evaluate the developed process chain, coating thickness of the billet is analysed before and after cross wedge rolling. It could be shown, that the forming process leads to an improvement of the coating, meaning a more homogeneous distribution along the main axis.

process chain, plasma-transferred arc deposition welding, hybrid parts, cross wedge rolling

In recent years, the requirements for technical components have steadily been increasing. This development is intensified by the desire for products with lower weight, smaller size and extended functionality, but also higher resistance against specific stresses.

The superior aim of the Collaborative Research Centre 1153 "Tailored Forming" is to develop potentials for hybrid solid components on the basis of a new process chain by using joined semi-finished workpieces.

This paper presents the approach and first results of selected subprojects for semi-finished workpiece production by composite extrusion presses, for forming the hybrid semi-finished products by means of cross wedge rolling, die forging and extrusion, and numerical failure prediction of the joining zones. This provides an overview of possible lightweight strategies in the area of bulk forming by the use of pre-joined semi-finished workpieces.

tailored forming, semi-finished workpiece production, forming, cross wedge rolling

Different challenges arise in cross wedge rolling hybrid parts depending of the material arrangement (serial or coaxial) which need to be investigated fundamentally first.

In cross wedge rolling of serial components, the controlled forming of the joining zone is the greatest challenge. The forming behaviour of the component halves is different, depending on the flow stress of the materials used. In order to allow the forming process to be carried out in a controlled manner, the forming behaviour was first analysed with regard to the displacement and quality of the joining zone, and then possibilities were determined with which the forming can be effected in a targeted manner. For this purpose, the influencing parameters (workpiece temperature, forming speed, cross-section reduction, shoulder and wedge angle) were determined systematically using the Finite Element method, and the investigations were then verified experimentally. In order to influence the forming behaviour the investigations include structural measures (e.g. unequal tool halves) as well as process-related parameters (e.g. unequal temperature distribution).

Cross wedge rolling of coaxial components has other challenges due to the component construction. The aim is to be able to specifically influence the course of the thickness of the applied coating during the forming. Therefore finite element simulations were carried out to determine the influencing parameters. By a systematic investigation of the test parameters according to the DoE method, the layer thickness before the deformation as well as the cross-section reduction are parameters with the greatest influences on the course of the layer thickness after the deformation gave. The results obtained were subsequently verified in experimental tests.

cross wedge rolling, steel, aluminum, joining zone, coating thickness

Efficient forming of components without burr: The solution is cross wedge rolling. Hybrid billets require new investigations: Which are the optimum adjustments to be made for joint forming of cohesive bonds – for example between steel and aluminium?

cross wedge rolling, hybrid billets

Today most technical parts and components are made of monolithic materials. Nevertheless, the previously used monolithic materials reach their technological and constructive limits, so that an improvement of the component properties can be realized by hybrid parts. Forging of previously joined semi-finished products to net shape hybrid components is a promising method to produce functional adapted parts in a few process steps. This new process chain offers a number of advantages compared to other manufacturing technologies. Examples are the production of specific load-adapted forging parts with a high level of material utilization, an improvement of the joining zone caused by the followed forming process and an easy to implement joining process because of the simple geometries of the semi-finished products. This paper describes the production process of hybrid steel parts, which are produced by a combination of a deposition welding process with a subsequent hot forging (upsetting) or cross-wedge-rolling. It could be shown that the innovative process chain enables the production of hybrid parts whereby the forging processes lead to an improvement of the mechanical properties of the laser deposited material.

process chain, deposition welding, hot forging, cross-wedge-rolling

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The project no. 252662854 receives funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG).

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